The 90/10 Model
Two Way Immersion Program

This is the model that we are striving for at our school. Inherently, It allows for the most efficiency in learning two languages.

Teacher Talking —> In Spanish In English
Kindergarten 90% 10%
First Grade 90% 10%
Second Grade 80% 20%
Third Grade 70% 30%
Fourth Grade 60% 40%
Fifth Grade 50% 50%

Keep in mind, this model only discusses the time the teacher spends in either Spanish or English, not the students. Students are always understood regardless of the language they are speaking. Spanish speaking students end up speaking as much if not more English then in a regular classroom, because they are the initial translators for the teacher. Lastly, this model works the best when the class is evenly split up: 50% of the students should come from Spanish speaking homes and 50% of the students should come from English speaking homes.


Program Overview: History of Two-Way Immersion

Two-Way Immersion (TWI) education has been in existence in the United States for nearly 40 years, but its growth in popularity is a more recent phenomenon. The number of schools participating in TWI programs has been on the rise for the past 15 years with over 300 schools nationwide and almost 200 in California. The majority of these programs are Spanish/English programs in public elementary schools. Moreover, this immersion program is modeled off of the Canadian French-English Immersion Model which has an even longer history.

Goals of Two Way Immersion
• Full proficiency in two languages
• High levels of achievement in all core academic domains
• Positive cross-cultural attitudes and behaviors
• Equal access to and benefits from bilingual education as well as general education

Key Program Components
Duration of the program: Program participants and their families are expected to make a minimum six year commitment to the two way immersion program. This duration of enrollment ensures full development of both Spanish and English language skills.

Language Separation:
Spanish and English instruction are kept separate, allowing maximized concentration of both languages. Teachers do not use translation for comprehension. Instead, they use a multitude of second language acquisition techniques to make language and content understandable for all students.

Experiential Curriculum:
Teachers establish an environment where students must use the target language to meet real needs. This approach develops language skills through hands-on classroom experiences.

Classroom Composition:
The most desirable student ratio in a two way immersion classroom is 50% English speakers and 50% Spanish speakers, but the program can operate successfully as long as neither language group falls bellow 35% of the class population.
These ratios…

• maintain an environment of linguistic equity
• facilitate cross-learning for both language groups
• encourage social interaction among Spanish and English speakers
• promote cultural understanding among all students

Role of Staff and Parents
Staffing: all two way bilingual immersion instructors are credentialed bilingual teachers with native-like fluency in Spanish. They attend yearly bilingual and two way immersion conferences specifically geared to assist second language instructors.

Parent Participation:
Parents are required to volunteer in the classroom and at the school. They are also encouraged to work with their children on languages skills at home. Monthly meetings are held to help parents become knowledgeable about the second language acquisition process, and to teach them how to support a child’s second language abilities as they increase.

TWI Benefits for English Speakers
• Bilingualism- functionally literate in two languages
• Biculturalism- develop an appreciation and understanding of another culture
• Preparation to function in a global society academically, linguistically, and socially
• Discovery and examination for personal values ad social responsibilities
• Equal or improved scores on standardized English achievement tests in comparison to peers not in TWI
• Promotes critical thinking, problem solving, and cooperative skills

TWI Benefits for Spanish Speakers
• Bilingualism- functionally literate in two languages
• Biculturalism- develop appreciation for another culture and gain a deeper understanding of own culture
• Empowerment of Spanish speaking students to develop leadership roes and advocacy skills
• Equal access to education
• Raises minority status = raises self esteem
• Good preparation for the global society
• Improved scores on standardized English achievement tests in comparison to peers not in TWI programs
• Increase parent involvement and communication
• Promotes critical thinking, problem solving and cooperative skills

TWI Benefits for the School and Community
• Promotes linguistic/racial/social equality
• Promotes communication between cultures
• Promotes tolerance and acceptance of cultural differences
• Promotes desegregation
• Creates a more united and close knit community